Sacred architecture of ancient India and Java

Sacred architecture of ancient India and Java
Sacred architecture of ancient India and Java | Have been many theories that try to explain about how cultural influences of India (Hindu-Buddha) to the islands of Indonesia. It's for sure the effect is thanks to the residents of the islands of Indonesia and then embarked on a period of history about the 4th century c.e. According to J.L.A Brandes (1887) the population of Southeast Asia including Indonesia Islands who inhabit has had 10 cleverness by the inclusion of the cultural influence of India, namely: (1) knowledge of metal casting, (2) able to make figures of humans and animals from stone, wood, or paintings on the walls of caves, (3) knowledge of musical instruments, (4) identify various motif, (5) recognize the barter economy system, understand astronomy (6), (7) skilled in navigation, (8) knows the oral tradition, (9) to know the irrigation system for agriculture, (10) the existence of an orderly society Setup. In the conditions of civilization as they then became acquainted and accept the niagawan and traveler from India or from China.

After interacting with migrants from India, then absorbed some aspects of culture is important by residents of the islands of Indonesia. Cultural aspects of India received by progenitor nation of Indonesia is really new stuff, they did not know before, namely:

1. Revised Pallava
2. Hinduism and Buddhism
3. the counting of the Saka year number

Through these three aspects of culture of India which later ancestors of civilization nation Indonesia encouraged a rapidly, developing and producing new forms of ancient Indonesia culture and ultimately the achievement was recognized as a result of the Indonesia's own creativity.


With the Pallava script, or familiar is often also referred to as Pascapallava, the ancestors of the people of Indonesia are able to document the experiences of his life. The publication of the inscriptions of the ancient epic, the karajaan literary works with a variety of titles, as well as other written documentation was familiar thanks to the Pallava script. Even in the later Pallava alphabet was then "nationalised" by the various ethnic groups Indonesia, then came the old Javanese alphabet among others, Ancient Ancient Sundanese, Balinese, Batak, Lampung, and Bugis.

The islands of Indonesia immediately entered the period of its history when written sources in the form of early inscriptions have been found in this region. The first inscription known as it is in the western part of Java and East Kalimantan. In developing the western part of Java, Royal institution of culture institutions of India first, namely the one of King of Tarumanagara named Purnnavarmman. In the meantime in East Kalimantan also developed the same system of Government, thanks to the relics Yupa inscriptions surviving up to now, known to the ancient Kingdom of Kutai, its King in the region known in inscriptions called Aswawarmman. Although in both the location of his inscriptions have yet to list the exact chronology, but it can be presumed that the first kingdoms on earth that thrive on the archipelago around the 4th century CE.

The first dated inscription found in the Central Java region, called Canggal inscription dated Saka or 652 732 m. Inscription that is early evidence that the ancestors of the people of Indonesia have calculated the year numbering system, and the recording is counting years from the Saka India. Since that time the old Javanese society beyond listing the data to record the chronology of important events that occurred in his life, not to mention years of passing by and ignored it.

Due to the receipt of the Hindu-Buddhist by the inhabitants of the islands of Java, mainly Indonesia and many aspects of the culture that is associated with the second part being the religion flourished anyway. Things that can be observed in the real happening in the arts arca and the art of waking (architecture). Other art forms were encouraged with respect to rapid life Hinduism-Buddhism in society is the art of literature. Many works of Indian literature and composed in the Hindu-Buddhist period always is based on Hindu religious vein or Buddha. Also elaborated the religious ashrams and Mandirs plaited with stories involving the ksatrya and kingdoms or the life of the Hermitage.

In terms of art, of course, statues made for religious purposes. Java never developed a form of art that is called a form of "art-Bound". The art form has always been associated with religious life, the arts, developed by the artists (silpin) dedicated to religious purposes. Art forms are bound to change, because the art was not only associated with religion but also dedicated to the life of a religious community (Vogler 1948). Individual figure perceived as artists don't need to be shown, even if mentioned – for example in the works of literature – the name of the artist that are written with the poet calls guises like the Prapanca (five flaws), Tantular (can't speak), Nirartha (have no possessions), and more. Whereas in the field of art, architecture or the statues themselves artists creators there is never mentioned. In terms of the art of sacred buildings in the old Javanese was not previously known to whom the name of the architect, the architectural masterpiece is considered a communal work, a work dedicated to the religious life in society at a time in an area. Therefore the results of the study can conclude relief what story carved on Borobudur, how many cubic blocks of stone that were used to build it, how many other stupanya, and again, but it is not known who the architect Designer. Moreover, the architect, the name of the King who advocated to establish a Temple any until now still not known for sure.

In the traditional view of the designers and up (sponsor) a work of architecture as majestic as any, presumably do not need to be highlighted. In view of the architectural masterpieces are still inextricably linked to religion, art, and society. In the chart I seen relationships work of architecture with other grains,


II

The chart looks at the link between community-art-religion mutual Association, the trio to support the formation of a work of architecture. Thus a work of architecture as any, if in the opinion of the community and moreover considered incompatible with Buddhist or Hindu religious rule, the architectural masterpiece is certainly gets no appreciation, perhaps even once overlooked or even dismantled again. Another case when the architectural masterpieces are seen fulfilling the desire of religious life of the community, then the simplest structure will remain valued and considered a sacred object.

The arts are bound that develop in the life of old Javanese society, very likely has its roots deep in an age when the influence of India is yet to go to the islands of Indonesia. Through a variety of megalithic relics can be found that the population of the Islands had known of any religion who worship deceased ancestors.

A form of respect for ancestral is growing along with the cult of high places such as slopes of mountains, plateaus, and the tops of the mountains. As a medium of worship in relii the record established the megalithic buildings in the heights area, such as a menhir, dolmen, burial stone, multilevel terrace (constructed stairs), and other artificial stones. The cult of the ancestors for some time it had been "deposited" when the influence of Hinduism-Buddhism was at its peak between the 8th century — 10 M in the central part of Java. Then after it was deposited some time, religion that developed in the perundagian it was then revived in the Majapahit era between the 14th century — 15 M.

Thus when the cultural influences of India came in and was introduced in the middle of the prehistoric society islands of Indonesia, they are not a society that is wild and barbaric, but the seed culture of India's plant in an appropriate and fertile land, a prehistoric society a civilized Indonesia.

III

The initial architectural masterpieces that still survives to the present day from the development of Hindu-Buddhist Java just a few buildings away. For example Mount Wukir Temple in Magelang, some temples at Dieng plateau, Gedong Songo temple at Ambarawa (Central Java), and the temples of the clown in Malang (East Java). Among the temples associated with the inscription has a relationship is a Temple Mount Wukir with Sanskrit Canggal inscription (732 M) and Temple inscriptions with the Dinoyo Clown (760 M).

In terms of art, of course, statues made for religious purposes. Java never developed a form of art that is called a form of "art-Bound". The art form has always been associated with religious life, the arts, developed by the artists (silpin) dedicated to religious purposes. Art forms are bound to change, because the art was not only associated with religion but also dedicated to the life of a religious community (Vogler 1948). Individual figure perceived as artists don't need to be shown, even if mentioned – for example in the works of literature – the name of the artist that are written with the poet calls guises like the Prapanca (five flaws), Tantular (can't speak), Nirartha (have no possessions), and more. Whereas in the field of art, architecture or the statues themselves artists creators there is never mentioned. In terms of the art of sacred buildings in the old Javanese was not previously known to whom the name of the architect, the architectural masterpiece is considered a communal work, a work dedicated to the religious life in society at a time in an area. Therefore the results of the study can conclude relief what story carved on Borobudur, how many cubic blocks of stone that were used to build it, how many other stupanya, and again, but it is not known who the architect Designer. Moreover, the architect, the name of the King who advocated to establish a Temple any until now still not known for sure.

In the traditional view of the designers and up (sponsor) a work of architecture as majestic as any, presumably do not need to be highlighted. In view of the architectural masterpieces are still inextricably linked to religion, art, and society. In the chart I seen relationships work of architecture with other grains,


II

The chart looks at the link between community-art-religion mutual Association, the trio to support the formation of a work of architecture. Thus a work of architecture as any, if in the opinion of the community and moreover considered incompatible with Buddhist or Hindu religious rule, the architectural masterpiece is certainly gets no appreciation, perhaps even once overlooked or even dismantled again. Another case when the architectural masterpieces are seen fulfilling the desire of religious life of the community, then the simplest structure will remain valued and considered a sacred object.

The arts are bound that develop in the life of old Javanese society, very likely has its roots deep in an age when the influence of India is yet to go to the islands of Indonesia. Through a variety of megalithic relics can be found that the population of the Islands had known of any religion who worship deceased ancestors.

A form of respect for ancestral is growing along with the cult of high places such as slopes of mountains, plateaus, and the tops of the mountains. As a medium of worship in relii the record established the megalithic buildings in the heights area, such as a menhir, dolmen, burial stone, multilevel terrace (constructed stairs), and other artificial stones. The cult of the ancestors for some time it had been "deposited" when the influence of Hinduism-Buddhism was at its peak between the 8th century — 10 M in the central part of Java. Then after it was deposited some time, religion that developed in the perundagian it was then revived in the Majapahit era between the 14th century — 15 M.

Thus when the cultural influences of India came in and was introduced in the middle of the prehistoric society islands of Indonesia, they are not a society that is wild and barbaric, but the seed culture of India's plant in an appropriate and fertile land, a prehistoric society a civilized Indonesia.

III

The initial architectural masterpieces that still survives to the present day from the development of Hindu-Buddhist Java just a few buildings away. For example Mount Wukir Temple in Magelang, some temples at Dieng plateau, Gedong Songo temple at Ambarawa (Central Java), and the temples of the clown in Malang (East Java). Among the temples associated with the inscription has a relationship is a Temple Mount Wukir with Sanskrit Canggal inscription (732 M) and Temple inscriptions with the Dinoyo Clown (760 M).

In terms of art, of course, statues made for religious purposes. Java never developed a form of art that is called a form of "art-Bound". The art form has always been associated with religious life, the arts, developed by the artists (silpin) dedicated to religious purposes. Art forms are bound to change, because the art was not only associated with religion but also dedicated to the life of a religious community (Vogler 1948). Individual figure perceived as artists don't need to be shown, even if mentioned – for example in the works of literature – the name of the artist that are written with the poet calls guises like the Prapanca (five flaws), Tantular (can't speak), Nirartha (have no possessions), and more. Whereas in the field of art, architecture or the statues themselves artists creators there is never mentioned. In terms of the art of sacred buildings in the old Javanese was not previously known to whom the name of the architect, the architectural masterpiece is considered a communal work, a work dedicated to the religious life in society at a time in an area. Therefore the results of the study can conclude relief what story carved on Borobudur, how many cubic blocks of stone that were used to build it, how many other stupanya, and again, but it is not known who the architect Designer. Moreover, the architect, the name of the King who advocated to establish a Temple any until now still not known for sure.

In the traditional view of the designers and up (sponsor) a work of architecture as majestic as any, presumably do not need to be highlighted. In view of the architectural masterpieces are still inextricably linked to religion, art, and society. In the chart I seen relationships work of architecture with other grains,


II

The chart looks at the link between community-art-religion mutual Association, the trio to support the formation of a work of architecture. Thus a work of architecture as any, if in the opinion of the community and moreover considered incompatible with Buddhist or Hindu religious rule, the architectural masterpiece is certainly gets no appreciation, perhaps even once overlooked or even dismantled again. Another case when the architectural masterpieces are seen fulfilling the desire of religious life of the community, then the simplest structure will remain valued and considered a sacred object.

The arts are bound that develop in the life of old Javanese society, very likely has its roots deep in an age when the influence of India is yet to go to the islands of Indonesia. Through a variety of megalithic relics can be found that the population of the Islands had known of any religion who worship deceased ancestors.

A form of respect for ancestral is growing along with the cult of high places such as slopes of mountains, plateaus, and the tops of the mountains. As a medium of worship in relii the record established the megalithic buildings in the heights area, such as a menhir, dolmen, burial stone, multilevel terrace (constructed stairs), and other artificial stones. The cult of the ancestors for some time it had been "deposited" when the influence of Hinduism-Buddhism was at its peak between the 8th century — 10 M in the central part of Java. Then after it was deposited some time, religion that developed in the perundagian it was then revived in the Majapahit era between the 14th century — 15 M.

Thus when the cultural influences of India came in and was introduced in the middle of the prehistoric society islands of Indonesia, they are not a society that is wild and barbaric, but the seed culture of India's plant in an appropriate and fertile land, a prehistoric society a civilized Indonesia.

III

The initial architectural masterpieces that still survives to the present day from the development of Hindu-Buddhist Java just a few buildings away. For example Mount Wukir Temple in Magelang, some temples at Dieng plateau, Gedong Songo temple at Ambarawa (Central Java), and the temples of the clown in Malang (East Java). Among the temples associated with the inscription has a relationship is a Temple Mount Wukir with Sanskrit Canggal inscription (732 M) and Temple inscriptions with the Dinoyo Clown (760 M).
 
The alignment can be observed in terms of the conception is essentially alone, while in terms of visualization to be a form of cultural material (buildings, statues and reliefs), there is a noticeable difference. In terms of religious conceptions were examined more thoroughly when there is a difference, wouldn't it be material culture visualization is a reflection of the conception. Thus why temples in Java differs from the temples of worship deities in India, it is very likely due to the reflection of different conceptions.

The influence of religion from India who came to Java processed again by the priests-old Javanese thinker, then emerged the idea of blending nature of Siva — Buddha. Therefore there is a blend that, then ritusnya becomes different tools, are no longer equal to the land it comes from.

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